Writing reST content
While the official reStructuredText documentation provides an extensive syntax guide, the info is scattered across many pages. The following page will try to explain the basics and mention a bunch of tricks that might not be immediately obvious.
reST is at its core optimized for fast content authoring — the text is easily human-readable, with no excessive markup, often-used formatting is kept simple and everything is extensible to allow intuitive usage in many use cases. The basic rules are not far from Markdown:
- Headers are made by underlining a line of text with some non-alphabetic character. Length of the underline has to be same as length of the title. Using a different character will create a next level heading, there’s no rule which character means what (but following some consistent rules across all your content is encouraged).
- Paragraphs are separated from each other by a blank line. Consecutive lines of text are concatenated together using spaces, ignoring the newlines. See the Basic block elements section below for more options.
- Multiple consecutive whitespace characters are rendered as a single space (but that’s largely due to how HTML behaves).
- Everything is escaped when converting to HTML, so inline HTML will appear as-is, unlike Markdown.
- As with Python, indentation matters in reST. Differently indented lines of text are usually separated via a newline, but exceptions to this rule exist.
- Lines starting with
..are treated as comment together with following indented lines as long as the indentation level is not less than indentation of the first line.
Heading 1 ######### First paragraph with a bunch of text. Some more text in that paragraph. You can wrap your paragraph nicely to fit on your editor screen, the lines will be concatenated together with a space in between. Second paragraph of text. Each of these paragraphs is rendered as a HTML <p> character. The main document heading is not part of the content, but rather an implicit document title metadata. Heading 2 ========= The above heading is using a different underline character so it will be rendered as <h2> in the output. Also, the whole section (heading + content until the next heading) is rendered as HTML5 <section> element. Heading 3 --------- Another character used, another level of headings. .. a comment, which is simply ignored when producing HTML output. This is still a comment. This as well. and this also This is not a comment anymore. Heading 2 ========= Going back to already used character, reST remembers for which heading level it was used the first time, so it goes back to <h2>.
There’s more information about basic syntax rules in the official reST documentation.
Each document can have a bunch of metadata fields that are not rendered as part
of the main document content. Example of these is an article summary, date or
overriding where given page is saved. Metadata field starts with
where name is field name. After the colon there is a space and field
contents. Consecutive indented lines are treated as part of the same field.
An article ########## :date: 2017-10-11 :author: Vladimír Vondruš :summary: Article summary. Because article summary can be quite long, let's wrap it on multiple lines. Article content starts here.
See the Pelican documentation for details about recognized fields and how various metadata can be also automatically extracted from the filesystem. The m.css Pelican theme recognizes a few more fields.
Special block elements (for example to include an image) are called
directives, are introduced by a line starting with
.. name::, where
name is directive name, after the
:: there can be optional positional
arguments. After that there can be an optional set of named directive options
(indented lines starting with
:name: where name is option name) and
after that optional directive content, also indented. Unindenting will escape
the directive. Directives can be nested and it’s possible to provide
user-defined directives via plugins.
Example and corresponding output, note the indentation:
While directives are for block elements, interpreted text roles are for inline
elements. They are part of a paragraph and are in form of
where name is role name and contents are role contents. The role has to be
separated with non-alphanumeric character from the surroundings; if you need
to avoid the space, escape it with
\; similarly with the
if you need to use it inside. Unlike directives, roles can’t be nested. Roles
are also extensible via plugins.
Roles, like directives, also have options, but the only way to use them is to
define a new role based off the original one with the options you need. Use
.. role:: directive like in the following snippet, where original
is optional name of the original role to derive from, new is the name of new
role and follows a list of options:
.. role:: new(original) :option1: value1 :option2: value2
Example and a corresponding output:
Besides headings and simple paragraphs, there are more block elements like
quotes, literal blocks, tables etc. with implicit syntax. Sometimes you might
want to separate two indented blocks, use a blank line containing just
to achieve that. Like directives, block elements are also nestable, so you can
have lists inside quotes and the like.
| Line block | will | preserve the newlines A quote is simply an indented block. .. A different quote. :: Literal block is itroduced with ::, which can be even part of previous paragraph (in which case it's reduced to a single colon). ========= ============ Heading 1 Heading 2 ========= ============ Cell 1 Table cell 2 Row 2 Row 2 cell 2 Row 3 Row 3 cell 3 ========= ============ - An unordered list - Another item 1. Sub-list, ordered 2. Another item 3. Note that the sub-list is separated by blank lines - Third item of the top-level list Term 1 Description Term 2 Description of term 2
preserve the newlines
A quote is simply an indented block.
A different quote.
Literal block is itroduced with ::, which can be even the ending of previous paragraph (in which case it's reduced to a single colon).
|Heading 1||Heading 2|
|Cell 1||Cell 2|
|Row 2||Row 2 cell 2|
|Row 3||Cell 3|
- An unordered list
- Another item
- Sub-list, ordered
- Another item
- Note that the sub-list is separated by blank lines
- Third item of the top-level list
- Term 1
- Term 2
- Description of term 2
The official reST documentation has more detailed info about block elements.
:emphasis: role can be written shorter by wrapping the content in
``. A single
\` is reserved and you can redefine to whatever you need in
given scope using the default-role
External links are written using
\`title <URL>\`_, where title is link
text and URL is the link destination. The link title can be then used again
to link to the same URL as simply
\`title\`_. Note that specifying two
links with the same title and different URLs is an error — if you need that,
use anonymous links that are in a form of
\`title <URL>\`__ (two
Internal links: every heading can be linked to using
heading is the heading text, moreover the heading itself can be wrapped in
backticks and an underscore to make it a clickable link pointing to itself.
Arbitrary anchors inside the text flow that can be linked to later can be
created using the
.. _anchor: syntax.
There are some special features in Pelican for easier linking to internal content, be sure to check out the documentation. The reST documentation also offers more detailed info about inline markup.
- A container
directive will just put a
<div>around its contents and its arguments will be put as CSS classes to that element.
- A class
directive will put its argument as CSS class to the immediately following
element. Besides that, most of the directives also accept a
:class:option that does the same.
- Sometimes you need to put raw HTML code onto your page (for example to embed a third-party widget). Use the raw directive to achieve that.
- For including larger portions of raw HTML code or bigger code snippets there’s the include directive, you can also specify just a portion of the file either by line numbers or text match.
- The contents directive will automatically make a Table of Contents list out of headings in your document. Very useful for navigation in large pages and articles.
For stuff like images, figures, code blocks, math listing etc., m.css provides various plugins that do it better than the builtin way. Head over to the official reST documentation for more info about builtin directives.
- Besides the already mentioned roles, there’s also a sup and sub role for superscript and subscript text.
- It’s also possible to put raw HTML code inline by deriving from the raw role.
Again, m.css provides various plugins that allow you to have inline code, math, GitHub and Doxygen links and much more. Head over to the official reST documentation for more info about builtin roles.